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氫氧化鉀的安全風險與應對方法!

發布來源:http://www.dbc-india.com    更新時間:2021-09-29 點擊數:

氫氧化鉀又名苛性鉀、苛性堿、鉀灰,外觀為白色粉末或片狀固體,是一種常見的化工產品,不論是在工業上還是在實驗室中都經常會看見它的身影。但是氫氧化鉀屬于危險化學品,具有強堿性及腐蝕性,還會造成人體中毒。

Potassium hydroxide, also known as caustic potassium, caustic soda and potassium ash, is a common chemical product with the appearance of white powder or flake solid. It is often seen in industry and laboratory. However, potassium hydroxide is a dangerous chemical, with strong alkalinity and corrosivity, and can also cause human poisoning.
強堿性及腐蝕性:其表現為在與皮膚接觸時會有燒灼作用,可溶解蛋白質,形成堿性變性蛋白質。溶液或粉塵濺到皮膚上,尤其濺到黏膜,可產生軟痂。溶液濃度越高,溫度越高,作用越強。濺入眼內,不僅可損傷角膜,而且能使眼部深組織損傷。
Strong alkalinity and corrosivity: it can burn when in contact with skin, dissolve protein and form alkaline denatured protein. When the solution or dust splashes on the skin, especially on the mucous membrane, soft scabs can be produced. The higher the solution concentration, the higher the temperature and the stronger the effect. Splashing into the eye can not only damage the cornea, but also damage the deep tissue of the eye.
如果我們在使用時不小心發生接觸,要迅速進行自救應對:工作時應防止觸及皮膚和眼睛,如不慎觸及時,可用流水洗滌受損部位,然后濕敷5%的醋酸、酒石酸、鹽酸或檸檬酸溶液;如濺人眼內,應用流水或生理鹽水仔細緩慢洗滌10~30min,然后點入2%的奴佛卡因或0.5%的地卡因溶液。操作時應穿由結實布制作的工作服,戴橡皮手套、袖套、圍裙,穿膠鞋等勞保用品,手上宜涂敷中性和疏水軟膏。
If we accidentally come into contact during use, we should quickly carry out self rescue response: we should prevent touching the skin and eyes during work. If we accidentally touch in time, we can wash the damaged parts with running water, and then wet compress 5% acetic acid, tartaric acid, hydrochloric acid or citric acid solution; If splashed into the eyes, wash carefully and slowly with running water or normal saline for 10 ~ 30min, and then point in 2% novocaine or 0.5% dicaine solution. During operation, wear work clothes made of solid cloth, rubber gloves, sleeves, aprons, rubber shoes and other labor protection articles, and apply neutral and hydrophobic ointment on hands.
毒性:長期吸入少量會造成肺損害,其急性毒性為LD50273mg/kg(大鼠經口)。所以一定要避免長時間的從事氫氧化鉀相關工作,注意佩戴相應防具,盡量避免食入。如果不小心食入,要立即用水漱口,并用飲牛奶或蛋清,嚴重者立即就醫。
Toxicity: long term inhalation of a small amount will cause lung damage, and its acute toxicity is ld50273mg / kg (oral to rats). Therefore, we must avoid engaging in potassium hydroxide related work for a long time, pay attention to wearing corresponding protective equipment and try to avoid eating. If you eat it accidentally, rinse your mouth with water immediately and drink milk or egg white. If it is serious, seek medical attention immediately.
由于氫氧化鉀還會污染水體,具有爆炸風險,在不慎發生泄露事故時要立即隔離泄漏污染區,限制出入。建議應急處理人員戴防塵面具,穿防酸堿工作服。不要直接接觸泄漏物。小量泄漏:用潔凈的鏟子收集于干燥、潔凈、有蓋的容器中。也可以用大量水沖洗,洗水稀釋后放入廢水系統。大量泄漏:收集回收或運至廢物處理場所處置。
As potassium hydroxide will also pollute the water body and has the risk of explosion, in case of accidental leakage accident, the leakage polluted area shall be isolated immediately and access shall be restricted. It is recommended that emergency treatment personnel wear dust masks and acid-base proof work clothes. Do not touch the leakage directly. Small leakage: collect it in a dry, clean and covered container with a clean shovel. It can also be washed with a large amount of water and diluted into the wastewater system. Massive leakage: collect, recycle or transport to the waste treatment site for disposal.

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